plants: due to the subtropical climate we find a number of colchic floral elements: Hedera pastuchowii, the relict Pterocarya pterocarpa. Endemic species in Kakhetia are for example: Galanthus lagodechianus, Paeonia mlokosewitschii, P. caucasica, P. lagodechiana, Gymnospermium smirnowii, Primula juliae, Gentiana lagodechiana.
Kakheti is dominated by the river valley of the river Alazani coming from the mountains in the Tusheti region in the West. The chain of the Greater Caucasus mountains with its border between Georgia and Dagestan represents the norhern border of Kakheti. To the south we find the small Gombori mountains to be the southern border of Kakheti.
Lagodekhi-Nationalpark is the oldest of the Caucasus. It was founded as a Nature Reserve (Zapovednik) in 1912. Dense virgin forests dominate its valleys on the southern slope of the great Caucasus mountains. A number of tertiary relict species survived the ice ages in this refugium, among them the Caucasian wingnut (Pterocarya pterocarya).